Altare della Patria
The Altare della Patria.
The Altare della Patria (Altar of the Fatherland) also known as the Monumento Nazionale a Vittorio Emanuele II (National Monument to Victor Emmanuel II) or “Il Vittoriano” is a monument built in honour of Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy, located in Rome, Italy. It occupies a site between the Piazza Venezia and the Capitoline Hill. The monument was designed byGiuseppe Sacconi in 1885; sculpture for it was parceled out to established sculptors all over Italy, such as Leonardo Bistolfi andAngelo Zanelli. It was inaugurated in 1911 and completed in 1925.
The monument is built of white marble from Botticino, Brescia, and features stairways, Corinthian columns, fountains, an equestrian sculpture of Victor Emmanuel and two statues of the goddess Victoria riding on quadrigas. The structure is 135 m (443 ft) wide and 70 m (230 ft) high. If the quadrigae and winged victories are included, the height is to 81 m (266 ft).
The base of the structure houses the museum of Italian Reunification. In 2007, a panoramic elevator was added to the structure, allowing visitors to ride up to the roof for 360 degree views of Rome.
- 1 Unknown soldier
- 2 Military Colours
- 3 Controversy
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Detail of the Altare della Patria (renovation in progress, summer of 2007)
The monument holds the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier with an eternal flame, built under the statue of Italy after World War I following an idea of General Giulio Douhet. The body of the unknown soldier was chosen on 26 October 1921 from among 11 unknown remains by Maria Bergamas, a woman from Gradisca d’Isonzowhose only child was killed during World War I. Her son’s body was never recovered. The selected unknown was transferred from Aquileia, where the ceremony with Bergamas had taken place to Rome and buried in a state funeral on 4 November 1921.
The flags of disbanded units of the Italian Armed Forces, as well as the flags of ships stricken from the naval register of the Italian Navy are stored at the Vittoriano in the so-called Shrine of the Flags (Sacrario delle Bandiere). The oldest flag on display is the flag of the 19th century frigate Giuseppe Garibaldi.
The monument was controversial since its construction destroyed a large area of the Capitoline Hill with a Medieval neighbourhood for its sake. The monument itself is often regarded as pompous and too large.
It has been described as being “chopped with terrible brutality into the immensely complicated fabric of the hill.”
It is clearly visible to most of the city of Rome despite being boxy in general shape and lacking a dome or a tower. The monument is also glaringly white, making it highly conspicuous amidst the generally brownish buildings surrounding it, and its stacked, crowded nature has lent it several nicknames. Foreign people sometimes refer to the structure by a variety of nicknames, such as “the wedding cake”, whereas Romans commonly call it “the typewriter”, although “the zuppa inglese” is also common. Despite all this criticism, the monument still attracts a large number of visitors. Italian President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi fostered the opening of theVittoriano as a public forum and viewpoint over the City core. This new accessibility allowed visitors to become familiar with the landmark, enabling it to grow in popular, if not critical, reputation.
Piazza Venezia is a major circus and the central hub of Rome, Italy, in which many thoroughfares intersect, like Via dei Fori Imperiali and Via del Corso. It takes its name from Venice (“Venezia” in Italian), after the Venetian Cardinal, Pietro Barbo (later Pope Paul II) who had built Palazzo Venezia, a palace set next to church of Saint Mark, also nearby, the patron saint of Venice. Palazzo Venezia was the former embassy of the city of the Republic of Venice to Rome.
The piazza or square is at the foot of the Capitoline Hill and next to Trajan’s Forum. The main artery, the Viale di Fori Imperiali starts there, leading past theRoman Forum and to the Colosseum. It is dominated by the imposing Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II, first king of Italy. In 2009, during excavations for the Rome C Metro Line, ancient remains of what has been identified as emperor Hadrian‘s Athenaeum were unearthed in the middle of the square.
The Capitoline Museums (Italian: Musei Capitolini) are a group of art and archeological museums in Piazza del Campidoglio, on top of the Capitoline Hill in Rome, Italy. The historic seats of the museums are Palazzo dei Conservatori and Palazzo Nuovo, facing on the central trapezoidal piazza in a plan conceived by Michelangelo Buonarroti in 1536 and executed over a period of more than 400 years. The history of the museums can be traced to 1471, when Pope Sixtus IV donated a collection of important ancient bronzes to the people of Rome and located them on Capitoline Hill. Since then, the museums’ collection has grown to include a large number of ancient Roman statues, inscriptions, and other artifacts; a collection of medieval and Renaissance art; and collections of jewels, coins, and other items. The museums are owned and operated by the municipality of Rome.
The statue of a mounted rider in the centre of the piazza is of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It is a copy, the original being housed on-site in the Capitoline museum. Many Roman statues were destroyed on the orders of Christian Church authorities in the Middle Ages; this statue was preserved in the erroneous belief that it depicted the Emperor Constantine, who made Christianity the official state religion of the Roman empire.
- 1 Buildings1.1 Palazzo dei Conservatori1.1.1 Main staircase
- 1.1.2 2nd floor
- 1.1.3 3rd floor
- 1.2 Palazzo Nuovo
- 1.3 Galleria Congiunzione
- 1.4 New wing
- 2 Centrale Montemartini
- 3 Gallery
- 4 References
The Palazzo dei Conservatori is one of the three main buildings of the Capitoline Museums.
Capitoline Museums gallery
This section contains collections sorted by building, and brief information on the buildings themselves. For the history of their design and construction, see Capitoline Hill#Michelangelo.
The Capitoline Museums are composed of three main buildings surrounding the Piazza del Campidoglio and interlinked by an underground gallery beneath the piazza.
The three main buildings of the Capitoline Museums are:
- Palazzo Senatorio, built in the 12th century and modified according to Michelangelo’s designs;
- Palazzo dei Conservatori, built in the mid-16th century and redesigned by Michelangelo with the first use of the giant order column design; and
- Palazzo Nuovo, built in the 17th century with an identical exterior design to the Palazzo dei Conservatori, which it faces across the palazzo.
In addition, the 16th century Palazzo Caffarelli-Clementino, located off the piazza adjacent to the Palazzo dei Conservatori, was added to the museum complex in the early 20th century.
Palazzo dei Conservatori
- the impressive relief from the honorary monument to Marcus Aurelius
The second floor of the building is occupied by the Conservator’s Apartment, a space now open to the public and housing such famous works as the bronze she-wolf nursing Romulus and Remus, which has become the emblem of Rome. The Conservator’s Apartment is distinguished by elaborate interior decorations, including frescoes, stuccos, tapestries, and carved ceilings and doors.
The third floor of the Palazzo dei Conservatori houses the Capitoline Art Gallery, housing the museums’ painting and applied art galleries. The Capitoline Coin Cabinet, containing collections of coins, medals, jewels, and jewelry, is located in the attached Palazzo Caffarelli-Clementino.
- The colossal statue restored as Oceanus, located in the museum courtyard of this building
- A fragment of the Tabula Iliaca located at the Hall of the Doves
- The statue of Capitoline Venus, from an original by Praxiteles (4th century BC)
The Galleria Congiunzione is located beneath the Palazzo dei Conservatori and the piazza itself, and links the three palazzos sitting on the piazza. The gallery was constructed in the 1930s. It contains in situ 2nd century ruins of ancient Roman dwellings, and also houses the Galleria Lapidaria, which displays the Museums’ collection of epigraphs.
The new great glass covered hall — the Sala Marco Aurelio — created by covering the Giardino Romano is similar to the one used for the Sala Ottagonale and British Museum Great Court. The design is by the architect Carlo Aymonino. Its volume recalls that of the oval space designed by Michelangelo for the piazza.
Its centrepiece is the bronze equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which was once in the centre of Piazza del Campidoglio and has been kept indoors ever since its modern restoration. Moving these statues out of the palazzo allows those sculptures temporarily moved to the Centrale Montemartini to be brought back. It also houses the remaining fragments of the bronze Colossus of Constantine and the archaeological remains of the tuff foundations of the temple of Capitoline Jupiter, with a model, drawn and computer reconstructions and finds dating from the earliest occupation on the site (in the mid Bronze Age: 17th-14th centuries B.C.) to the foundation of the temple (6th century BC).
In the three halls adjacent to the Appartamento dei Conservatori are to be found the showcases of the famous Castellani Collection with a part of the magnificent set of Greek and Etruscan vases that was donated to the Municipality of Rome byAugusto Castellani in the mid 19th century.
The Centrale Montemartini is a former power station of Acea (active as a power-station between the 1890s and 1930s) in southern Rome, between Piramide and the basilica of San Paolo Fuori le Mura, close to the Metro station Garbatella. Its permanent collection comprises 400 ancient statues, moved here during the reorganisation of the Capitoline Museums in 1997, along with tombs, busts, and mosaics. Many of them were excavated in the ancient Roman horti (e.g. the Gardens of Sallust) between the 1890s and 1930s, a fruitful period for Roman archaeology. They are displayed there along the lines of Tate Modern, except that (unlike there) the machinery has not been moved out.
Note: Several significant artifacts are on display in the traveling exhibition “The Dream of Rome” in The National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. from June 8 to September 5, 2011, as well as in other cities before 2013. 
The wounded Amazon, copy from original work byPhidias
Bust of Alexander-Helios
Probably a copy of the statue of Artemis by Kephisodotos
Bust of Augustus
Head of the colossal statue of Constantine I
The dying Gaul
Statue from Horti Lamiani
Equestrian statue ofMarcus Aurelius
Mosaic. – Roman artwork from the 2d quarter of the 4th century CE
Statue of Athena, Centrale Montemartini, Rome
She-wolf of Rome