|Location||Villa Borghese, Rome, Italy|
The Borghese Gallery (Italian: Galleria Borghese) is an art gallery in Rome, Italy, housed in the former Villa Borghese Pinciana. It is a building that was from the first integral with its gardens, nowadays considered quite separately by tourists as the Villa Borghese gardens. The Galleria Borghese houses a substantial part of the Borghese collection of paintings, sculpture and antiquities, begun by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, the nephew of Pope Paul V (reign 1605–1621). The Villa was built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, developing sketches by Scipione Borghese himself, who used it as a villa suburbana, a party villa at the edge of Rome.
Scipione Borghese was an early patron of Bernini and an avid collector of works by Caravaggio, who is well represented in the collection by his Boy with a Basket of Fruit, St. Jerome, Sick Bacchus and others. Other paintings of note includeTitian‘s Sacred and Profane Love, Raphael’s Entombment of Christ and works by Peter Paul Rubens and Federico Barocci.
- 1 History
- 2 Collection
- 2.1 Gian Lorenzo Bernini at the Borghese
- 2.2 The National Museum of Musical Instruments
- 3 Nearby museums
- 4 Collection Highlights
- 4.1 Sculptures
- 4.2 Paintings
- 5 External links
- 6 Notes
The Casina Borghese lies on the outskirts of seventeenth-century Rome. By 1644, John Evelyn described it as “an Elysium of delight” with “Fountains of sundry inventions, Groves and small Rivulets of Water”. Evelyn also described the Vivarium that housed ostriches, peacocks, swans and cranes “and divers strange Beasts”. Prince Marcantonio IV Borghese (1730–1800), who began the recasting of the park’s formal garden architecture into an English landscape garden, also set out about 1775, under the guidance of the architect Antonio Asprucci, to replace the now-outdated tapestry and leather hangings and renovate the Casina, restaging the Borghese sculptures and antiquities in a thematic new ordering that celebrated the Borghese position in Rome. The rehabilitation of the much-visited villa as a genuinely public museum in the late eighteenth century was the subject of an exhibition at the Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, in 2000, spurred by the Getty’s acquisition of fifty-four drawings related to the project.
In 1808, Prince Camillo Borghese, Napoleon’s brother-in-law, was forced to sell the Borghese Roman sculptures and antiquities to the Emperor. The result is that the Borghese Gladiator, renowned since the 1620s as the most admired single sculpture in Villa Borghese, must now be appreciated in the Musée du Louvre. The “Borghese Hermaphroditus” is also now in the Louvre.
The Borghese villa was modified and extended down the years, eventually being sold to the Italian government in 1902, along with the entire Borghese estate and surrounding gardens and parkland.
Sacred and Profane Love by Titian. c. 1514
Venus and Cupid by Lucas Cranach The Elder. c. 1531
The Galleria Borghese includes twenty rooms across two floors.
The main floor is mostly devoted to classical antiquities of the 1st–3rd centuries AD (including a famous 320-30 AD mosaic of gladiators found on the Borghese estate atTorrenova, on the Via Casilina outside Rome, in 1834), and classical and neo-classical sculpture such as the Venus Victrix. Its decorative scheme includes a trompe l’oeil ceiling fresco in the first room, or Salone, by the Sicilian artist Mariano Rossi makes such good use of foreshortening that it appears almost three-dimensional.
Gian Lorenzo Bernini at the Borghese[edit source | editbeta]
Many of the sculptures are displayed in the spaces they were intended for, including many works by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, which comprise a large percent of his lifetime output of secular sculpture, starting with a juvenile, but talented, work such as the Goat Amalthea with Infant Jupiter and Faun (1615) to his dynamic Apollo and Daphne (1622–25) and David (1623)  considered seminal works of baroque sculpture. In addition, three busts by this sculptor are in the gallery, two of Pope Paul V(1618–20) and an insightful portrait of his first patron, Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1632). Finally it has some early, somewhat mannerist works such as Aeneas, Anchises & Ascanius (1618–19)  and the Rape of Proserpine (1621–22).
The National Museum of Musical Instruments
This collection is made up of instruments from not only western cultures but also instruments from ancient cultures (such as Egyptian, Greek, and Roman) and instruments from America, Africa, and Oceania. The bulk of the collection was donated by operasinger Evan Gorga and it is the largest collection ever given to the museum.
Also in Villa Borghese gardens or nearby are the Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Moderna, which specialises in 19th- and 20th-century Italian art, and Museo Nazionale Etrusco, a collection of pre-Roman objects, mostly Etruscan, excavated around Rome.
Truth Unveiled by Time by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1645-1652
- David Bernini 1623.jpg
David by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1623
Pauline Bonaparte by Antonio Canova.
Apollo and Daphne by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1622
Rape of Proserpina by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1621
Melissa by Dosso Dossi. c. 1507
Saint Jerome by Caravaggio. c. 1606
Deposition by Raphael. c. 1507
The Last Supper by Jacopo Bassano. c. 1546
St. John the Baptist by Caravaggio. c. 1610
Madonna, Child and Serpent by Caravaggio. c. 1605-1606
Danae by Correggio. c. 1530
Boy with a Basket of Fruit by Caravaggio. c. 1593
Diana and Her Nymphs byDomenichino. c. 1616-1617
The Scourging of Christ by Titian. c. 1560
St. John the Baptist by Paolo Veronese. c. 1562
Deposition by Sisto Badalocchio. c. 1610
Deposition by Peter Paul Rubens. c. 1602
The Concert by Gerrit van Honthorst. c. 1626-1630
Portrait of a Man by Antonello da Messina. c. 1474-1475
Mourning of the Dead Christ by Ortolano. c. 1522
Venus Blindfolding Cupid byTitian. c. 1565
Lady with a Unicorn by Raphael. c. 1505
Aeneas’ Flight from Troy byFrederico Barocci. c. 1598.
St. Dominic by Titian. c. 1565
Portrait of a Man byParmigianino. c. 1528
Susanna and The Elders byPeter Paul Rubens. c. 1607-1608
Madonna and Child and Saints by Lorenzo Lotto. c. 1508
Madonna and Child by Giovanni Bellini. c. 1510
Bacchus by Caravaggio. c. 1593
Self Portrait by Gian Lorenzo Bernini. c. 1623
David with Goliath’s Head by Caravaggio. c. 1609
Moses by Guido Reni. c. 1624
Apollo by Dosso Dossi. c. 1524
Portrait of a Young Man by Raphael. c. 1502